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The Wayúu Language
The Wayúu language is called Wayuunaiki. The term kusima is used to refer to other indigenous people, and alijuna to designate non-indigenous people, regardless of whether they are white, black or mestizo, in general for the ‘civilized’.
Their language belongs to the Arawak family, some of them speak Spanish. They settle in isolation along the peninsula and mainly around Nazareth, Uribia, Serranía de Jalala, Maicao and Manaure.
The Wayúu settlements are matriarchal, that is to say, the woman is the one who dominates the family. They are generally grouped into five or six houses, rancherías or pichiipala, inhabited according to kinship through the female line.
The dwelling is very simple and undecorated; valuables are kept in backpacks that are hung up. The kitchen is an independent construction, and there is always a shed (luma) with a thatched roof and columns without partitions in which social life takes place.
The dwellings are rectangular (in Alta Guajira some circular ones can be seen) built with yotojoro (the heart of the cactus) or bahareque. In recent decades, zinc and brick have been introduced. The corrals are located away from the houses.
The main production system is livestock, especially goats. Cattle are a way of obtaining prestige and wealth because they are used to obtain more wives and as payment for reparations.
The arrival of industry and construction are changing the traditional forms of subsistence, which was the need to produce manufactured objects and to work as wage laborers during the dry seasons in different industrial regions of Venezuela.
Another traditional way of obtaining money is in the work of the salt mines and informal commerce, which for decades have helped to overcome the precariousness of the territory.
The social organization is based on matrilineal classes associated with greater wealth and poverty. Marriage is an economic transaction and polygamy is the representation of economic success.
Except for the last woman, the rest live with their children in separate rancherías and the husband visits them periodically.
There is no political organization and there is no central authority. In fact, the Wayuus use a caste or clan system. That is why the problems among them are solved directly, which can cause real quarrels between families. The only social institution or authority is the piache or palabrero, man or woman who receives such powers by illumination.
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The typical clothing is very simple, the man uses guayuco or loincloth (less and less used) held by a sash (siira) and always the backpack or susuchón and the hat (mawisa) with symbolic drawings.
The woman’s clothing is very colorful; she wears the guajira blanket or wayusheein (a kind of Arabian djellaba) made of light industrial fabrics that cover her from the sun’s rays, a headscarf, and the kakunas, jewelry that was part of the payment for the marriage.
The attire is complemented with guaireñas or cotizas made with indigenous techniques, which are decorated on top with wool tassels or multicolored threads.
The Wayúu make the most famous handicrafts of La Guajira. Their colorful and well-designed weavings are items that, in addition to being decorative, are part of the usual accessories of their creators. Blankets, backpacks and chinchorros enrich the handicraft inventory, especially in Uribia.
Wayúu handicrafts are characterized by cheerful tones and vivid colors. The colorful tones that the natives imprint on their handicrafts are a reflection of the artistic character of the women who, from a very early age, learn to weave in the “Encierro” (sutus or papcos) where it is said that “to be a woman is to know how to weave”.
They mainly use cotton as raw material to create their usual products, such as blankets, an essential part of their clothing, and “chinchorros” and backpacks decorated with balls and bangs of the same material that provide them with singular beauty. They also produce espadrilles in fabric and thick rubber floors very resistant and durable known as “guaireñas”.
Music and folklore : La Yonna
In the north, the dance of the yonna or chichamaya stands out, and in the south, vallenata music.
The chichamaya is considered autochthonous and of great significance for the indigenous people. In general, the dance of the kid is a reason to celebrate the arrival of the rains, and parties are held in honor of Mareiwa, the creator God of the Guajiros.
The dance is performed by one or more women and a man; the latter dances backwards to the beat of the drums, and the woman dances forward more serenely, with the aim of knocking the man down. Finally, she makes him fall and those around them celebrate with joy.
The man is dressed with the best garment: the guayuco, and the woman, with the best blanket, the taquiara.
- More info : http://www.festivalwayuu.com/
On the contrary, the traditional vallenato rhythm is a native contribution of the southern region, cradle of accordions and minstrels, where the rhythm emanates from the melodious combination of the caja, the guacharaca and the accordion.
The jurisdiction of the municipality of Riohacha has a double pride: accordion music entered and spread through this place, and also Francisco Antonio Moscote Rodríguez, known as Francisco el Hombre, creator of one of the most important folkloric currents in the country, the vallenata music, was born and died in this area.
Rancheria Tourist Days
It is a unique opportunity to learn about the reality, habits and customs of the Wayúu natives; traditions are shared, the Wayuunaiki language is heard and the social distribution of the ethnic group is perceived.
The visit can include the tasting of a plate of friche (typical goat-based dish), prepared in front of the visitor and the delight of a toast with chirrinchi (distilled liquor based on panela). You can buy handicrafts made in the same place and appreciate the dance of the yonna or chichamaya.
The ranchería activity can be done in an afternoon or a day or spend a night sleeping as the natives themselves do.
Myths and legends
Miracle of the Virgin of Remedios
Since May 14, 1663, the miracle performed by the Virgen de los Remedios is commemorated in Riohacha.
According to the version transmitted from generation to generation by the people of Riohacha, this event took place in the natural phenomenon of a violent storm at sea.
In the darkness of the night, between thunder and lightning, in the fury of the wind and rain a multitude of men and women who went crazy with fear and with men full of tears implored mercy to the Virgin of Remedies, this was taken out of the temple and walked through the main streets; her crown was thrown into the sea by the gale, which produced the serenity of the waves. Thus originated the miracle of the Virgen de los Remedios.
Origin of the Macuira Mountain Range
The guajiro myth tells that once upon a time there was a cacique who had a hut in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta from where he could watch the faces of his three sons who lived with him. One night, he dreamed that they were walking away to the north of La Guajira.
This thought haunted him again and again until one night, distressed by the dream, he got up to see if his children were asleep, but they were not to be found. Alarmed, he looked to the north and there stood three imposing peaks. It was his three sons who had given birth to the Macuira mountain range.
From Tomarrazón, a small town in La Guajira Media, Francisco el Hombre left with his accordion on his chest and went through the dusty trails of the smugglers and traveled the tangle of bridle paths that, in those days, were the only means of communication. From town to town, with his cracked feet, he went seducing women, drinking rum and singing the latest news.
One night, in the comings and goings of his vagabond singing, he found himself face to face with the devil and, with no other alternative, he had to fight for his soul in an accordion duel. The Credo, played backwards, decided the contest in favor of Francisco el Hombre. Since then, piquerías are the most emotional way to judge who is the best accordion player.
Jagged Vagina Myth
It is a myth about the origin of the Wayúu ethnic group that says: At that time, women were considered semi-goddesses, they had their vaginas with teeth and there was no way of human reproduction.
Wolunka, daughter of the goddess Mareigua one day when she was bathing intimately in a well was discovered by two twins who with an arrow knocked down the teeth of her vagina; at the same time, all the other women were detached.
The action made it possible to conceive children and it was Wolunka who was the first to give birth to a daughter. From then on, the Wayúu began to reproduce.
In La Guajira, the main gastronomic tradition is the goat, prepared in different ways, being the most famous dish the friche. Due to its proximity to the sea, it is rich in a variety of fish and seafood that attracts visitors and seafood lovers to taste the freshest and most appetizing typical dishes.
Friche is the most famous of the Guajira dishes; it is prepared with young and tender goat legs and ribs, with the animal’s blood and offal. It is seasoned with garlic and finely chopped onions and green paprika, lemon, salt and pepper to taste.
All the ingredients are mixed and sautéed, and then left to cook over low heat, stirring the mixture constantly. It is served with a corn bun or clean bun.
Other dishes are: shrimp rice, chorizo rice, chipichi rice (seafood), stingray salad, chichigüare arepa (fried tender corn arepa), canchafa arepa in machobayo (ground corn arepa, roasted in an almond tree banana leaf and finally grilled).
The dishes are accompanied by drinks such as corn chicha, loquat juice, iguaraya, wild cherry and canned grape juice.
Desserts are equally varied and include the traditional coconut cocada (coconut candy), dulce de leche de Monguí, bolitas de leche, icaco candies, sesame, corn, green papaya and other delicious desserts such as grapefruit and potato candy.
Guajira Events: Best Festivals & Carnivals
Our Lady of Los Remedios Patron Saint’s Festivities
The Virgen de los Remedios, intimately known as La Vieja Mello, represents one of the oldest religious traditions of the riohacheros. It is equated to the Virgen de La Candelaria because it coincides in the date of its celebration
(the same is very common in other parts of the Colombian Caribbean). Within the framework of her festivity, among other activities, there are novenaries, masses and the procession that goes through the center of the city and the edge of the bay, very solemn acts, dawn and musical retretas in honor of the Virgin; payment of promises or “mandas”; celebration of baptisms, marriages, first communions, fireworks, and kiosks of typical food and handicrafts.
Wayúu Culture Festival
It is held in the municipality of Uribia, known as the indigenous capital of Colombia, in order to highlight and preserve the Wayúu customs. Craft exhibitions, conferences and horseback rides are held and a beautiful and authentic representative of the Wayúu culture (Majayura) is chosen.
A week before Lent, the carnival festivities are held. During these days, the people have fun in booths to the sound of drums, throwing cornstarch and taking out every Friday of pre-Carnival the authentic “pilón guajiro”. The festivities end with the parade of the embarradores throughout the city of Riohacha and their bath in the sea at dawn.
Los Laureles Festival
The Festival de Los Laureles is a cultural, folkloric, recreational and civic event for the dissemination, promotion, recovery and preservation of Vallenato folklore and culture in all its splendor. The name was given in honor of the trees that adorn the main square, known as fig trees although it is also known as Indian laurel, that is why the Festival de Los Laureles is named after them.
The return of the raizales of Fonseca turns this return towards the nostalgia and the memory of the old times and their customs. In the feast of St. Augustine can not miss the Eucharistic celebrations and sacraments, the procession and the payment of promises, accordion competitions, unpublished song of great quality, piquería or kiosks of typical food and crafts, so the slogan “Fonseca, to return to you is to repeat the joy of being born again” was institutionalized.
Flower and Calaguala Festival
Cultural and sports competition with the participation of schools. The name is due to the flowers and the calaguala fern, very common in the region. There are folkloric dances, exhibition of floral arrangements and calaguala, accordion competitions in the amateur and children’s categories and unpublished pieces in vallenato rhythms.
Cuna de Acordeones Festival
Santo Tomas Festival. Gathering of the great accordionists of La Guajira and Cesar. Contests of unpublished pieces (son, puya, paseo and merengue), best accordion players in the categories of children, amateur and professional, best singer and the piqueria of adults and children in the modalities of free theme and forced foot. Forum on Vallenato folklore. Parade of folkloric dances: mapalé, cumbia, vallenato, pilón. In addition, Eucharistic celebration, procession and fireworks.
National Coal Festival
The celebration includes mass, retreta and pyrotechnics. In the National Reign, the candidates represent those departments that produce coal. There is also an amateur accordion contest, pyrotechnics, unpublished songs in the rhythms of puya, paseo, merengue and son, a parade of floats with the candidates and regional folklore groups, a regional dance exhibition, a gathering of Wayúu Indians and an exhibition of paintings and handicrafts.
Religious-cultural event in the prosperous town of El Molino.
Festival Cuna de Compositores
This festival highlights the folklore and customs of the people of San Juan. In the event the unpublished songs are chosen in the different categories and the composer of the year is chosen.
National and International Dividivi Festival
It is the most important festival celebrated in La Guajira. Riohacha is adorned with a great feast. Numerous walks accompany step by step to their candidate, and in the popular dances end the revelry and joy of the people of La Guajira.
Dividivi is a tree that grows wild in La Guajira, whose fruit is an S-shaped curled pod, rich in tannin, which serves as raw material to produce tonic extracts used in tanneries.
Frito and Almojábana Festival
Event dedicated to fried foods, which are consumed in large quantities in the area. The almojábana is the edible product par excellence and has become the basis of the economy of the village of Cuestecita in the municipality of Albania. Contest to award the best fried and the most exquisite almojábanas.
Corn Festival and Corn Reign
It is held in the picturesque village of Villa Martin (Machobayo), municipality of Riohacha, the first weekend of December. It is a folkloric and cultural event that integrates all the towns of La Guajira, among its events are highlighted: Unpublished song contests, piqueria, children’s accordion, calbalgata, rooster fights and beauty pageant.
- Riohacha. Francisco el Hombre Festival in January.
- Riohacha. Fiestas patronales de Nuestra Señora
de los Remedios in early February.
- Riohacha. Carnivals are held from January to March.
- Uribia. Feast of the Wayúu Culture in May.
- Cuestesitas. Festival of the Frito and the Almojábana in May.
- Distraction. Festival of Los Laureles in May.
- La Junta. Festival y Reinado del Fique in July.
- Fonseca. Festival del Retorno in August.
- Riohacha. Bolero Festival in September.
- Villanueva. Festival Cuna de Acordeones in September
- El Molino
- Singer’s Festival in October.
- San Juan del Cesar. Festival Cuna de Compositores in December.
- Monguí. Dulce de Leche Festival and Contest in December.