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The Republic of Colombia borders Venezuela and Brazil to the east, Panama to the northwest and Ecuador and Peru to the south.
It has a multicultural population (mostly the result of crossbreeding between Europeans, indigenous people and Africans, with minorities of indigenous people and Afro-descendants) and is the only nation in South America with a Pacific Ocean coastline and access to the Atlantic through the Caribbean Sea.
- Official name: Republic of Colombia
- President: Ivan Duque
- Area: 1,141,748 km².
- Language: Spanish – but many dialects still exist.
- Capital: Santa Fé de Bogotá (Bogotá)
- Religion: Catholic (85%)
- Motto: Libertad y orden (Freedom and order)
- Hymn: ¡ Oh Gloria Inmarcesible! (O imperishable glory!)
- Total population: 49.3 million (2017)
- Density: 42 inhabitants/km².
- Annual growth: 1.2
- Birth rate: 16.3 ‰
- Mortality rate: 5.4 ‰
- Infant mortality: 17 ‰
- Life expectancy: 75 years (men: 72 years, women: 79 years)
- GDP: US$ 282 billion (2016)
- GDP/capita: US$ 5,800 (2016)
- Growth rate: 2% (2016)
- Unemployment rate: 10.5% (2016)
- Population below the poverty line: 28% (2017)
- Inflation: 5.7% (2016)
- Surface area: 1.1 million km² (twice the size of France), divided into 32 departments.
- Population: 47 million inhabitants, 3rd most populated country in Latin America (after Brazil and Mexico).
- Density: 40 inhabitants/km², 70% urban population.
- Colombia has the world’s largest population of internally displaced persons (around 4.5 million).
- Capital: Santa Fe de Bogota (8 million inhabitants)
- Other cities: Medellin (4 million inhabitants), Cali (3 million inhabitants), Barranquilla (2 million inhabitants), Cartagena (1.5 million inhabitants), Cucuta (1.3 million inhabitants), Bucaramanga (1.2 million inhabitants) Neighbouring countries: Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Venezuela and Panama.
- Maritime borders: Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea.
- Highest point and relief: Pico Cristobal Colon and its twin peak Simon Bolivar (5775m) in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
- On the border with Ecuador, the Andes Cordillera is divided into 3 branches: Western, Central and Eastern.
- Longest river : The Rio Magdalena (1,550 km) crosses the country from South to North.
- Colombia alone holds 60% of the water in Latin America.
- Literacy rate: 93%.