The Republic of Colombia borders Venezuela and Brazil to the east, Panama to the northwest and Ecuador and Peru to the south.

It has a multicultural population (mostly the result of crossbreeding between Europeans, indigenous people and Africans, with minorities of indigenous people and Afro-descendants) and is the only nation in South America with a Pacific Ocean coastline and access to the Atlantic through the Caribbean Sea.

  • Official name: Republic of Colombia
  • President:  Ivan Duque
  • Area: 1,141,748 km².
  • Language: Spanish – but many dialects still exist.
  • Capital: Santa Fé de Bogotá (Bogotá)
  • Religion: Catholic (85%)
  • Motto: Libertad y orden (Freedom and order)
  • Hymn: ¡ Oh Gloria Inmarcesible! (O imperishable glory!)

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The people

  • Total population: 49.3 million (2017)
  • Density: 42 inhabitants/km².
  • Annual growth: 1.2
  • Birth rate: 16.3 ‰
  • Mortality rate: 5.4 ‰
  • Infant mortality: 17 ‰
  • Life expectancy: 75 years (men: 72 years, women: 79 years)

The Economy

  • GDP: US$ 282 billion (2016)
  • GDP/capita: US$ 5,800 (2016)
  • Growth rate: 2% (2016)
  • Unemployment rate: 10.5% (2016)
  • Population below the poverty line: 28% (2017)
  • Inflation: 5.7% (2016)


  • Surface area: 1.1 million km² (twice the size of France), divided into 32 departments.
  • Population: 47 million inhabitants, 3rd most populated country in Latin America (after Brazil and Mexico).
  • Density: 40 inhabitants/km², 70% urban population.
  • Colombia has the world’s largest population of internally displaced persons (around 4.5 million).
  • Capital: Santa Fe de Bogota (8 million inhabitants)
  • Other cities: Medellin (4 million inhabitants), Cali (3 million inhabitants), Barranquilla (2 million inhabitants), Cartagena (1.5 million inhabitants), Cucuta (1.3 million inhabitants), Bucaramanga (1.2 million inhabitants) Neighbouring countries: Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Venezuela and Panama.
  • Maritime borders: Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea.
  • Highest point and relief: Pico Cristobal Colon and its twin peak Simon Bolivar (5775m) in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
  • On the border with Ecuador, the Andes Cordillera is divided into 3 branches: Western, Central and Eastern.
  • Longest river : The Rio Magdalena (1,550 km) crosses the country from South to North.
  • Colombia alone holds 60% of the water in Latin America.
  • Literacy rate: 93%.

Now Your Turn

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